Imperial Cleaning


Use a weather report or a weather map to introduce weather vocab and to provide a stimulus for talking about the weather in different European countries: The answer was to encourage students to view broadcasts in a more active way, for example by introducing generic worksheets into the satellite TV viewing room.

Valencià - Castellà / Espanyol

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The program was revived three additional times in syndication afterwards. The first revival premiered in and ran until , the second ran from until , and the last ran from until with a season of reruns following.

The revival was hosted by Elaine Joyce for its first season and Jeff MacGregor for its remaining two seasons. When the show was revived with a different format in , Brad Sherwood was named as its host. Chuck Woolery took over in when the original format was reinstated and hosted for the last two seasons. This was especially true when the two shows entered syndication; in fact, in the revivals of both The Dating Game and The Newlywed Game were sold as a package called "The Dating-Newlywed Hour".

The program was originally broadcast in black-and-white, but when a prime-time version began in October , both it and the daytime version were broadcast in color; the daytime version thus became the first ABC daytime series to be broadcast in color on a regular basis.

Typically, a bachelorette would question three bachelors , who were hidden from her view; at the end of the questioning period, she would choose one to go out with on a date paid for by the show. Occasionally, the roles would be reversed with a man questioning three ladies; other times, a celebrity would question three players for a date for themselves or for a co-worker or a relative of theirs.

One standard trademark was that at the end of each episode, the host and winning contestants would blow a kiss to the viewers. Generally the bachelorette would ask questions written in advance on cards to each of the three hidden bachelors.

The same question could be asked to multiple bachelors. This continued until time ran out. The bachelorette would make her choice based solely on the answers to her questions.

Occasionally, the contestant was a bachelor who would ask questions to three bachelorettes. Certain kinds of questions were "off-limits", such as name, age, occupation, and income. When the original format returned to the syndicated revival in , these rules were readopted but there was more of a variety between bachelors and bachelorettes. For the first season of the revival, The Dating Game used a different format. When chosen, a new statement replaced the old statement and the potential date explained the reason why that fact pertained to them.

In several weeks of episodes that aired at various times throughout the season, another format was used. This format saw the players choose a potential date based on how good they looked and another based on personality. The statement round was used to determine the "personality" portion. The remaining versions of the show, which were made for ABC prime-time and for syndication, are assumed to exist in their entirety.

Here are two more sample audio files, both recorded in MP3 format, which are taken from a series of audio files commissioned by Camsoft for the Arc-en-Ciel 2 textbook. MP3 files take up far less space than WAV files. MP3 is now the most commonly used format for storing audio files on the Web: Sitting on a comfortable sofa and watching broadcast TV on a high-definition big screen is still, however, more pleasant than sitting at a computer and viewing video clips two feet away from your face..

You can save the WMV file to your hard disc, either using the procedure indicated above in Section 2. Downloading large audio and video files, or any other kinds of large files, used to be tedious when people had to connect to the Internet using an older-style dial-up modem.

In those days you needed to kill time by making yourself a cup of coffee or taking the dog for a walk while you were waiting. And then you might find that the download process had timed out or crashed before it had been completed. Nowadays, with broadband connections to the Internet being much more widely available, long waits are a thing of the past, and the process of downloading files can be made more efficient by using a download manager: If a download fails for any reason you can resume it and continue downloading from the point at which it failed.

Streaming audio or streaming video rarely plays satisfactorily if you connect to the Internet via an old-style dial-up modem. Have a look at the following websites, where you can find regular streaming audio and streaming video broadcasts: BBC iPlayer service, which enables you to catch up on programs that you have missed: Links to all kinds of media - newspapers, magazines, websites, press agencies, radio and TV stations - all over the world: German language news broadcasts: A site maintained by TV5, the French language broadcasting station: Radio stations around the world, including radio stations broadcasting in foreign languages: A website where you can find and post video clips.

There are many clips that are useful for language learning and teaching: It's a short embedded clip of Graham Davies's greyhound, Swifty, carrying his lunch in from the garden. YouTube video clips can easily be embedded into a Web page. Full instructions can be found at the YouTube site. There are many useful and entertaining video clips on YouTube. These clips are four of Graham Davies's favourites: Viewing and saving streaming audio and streaming video You will need a plug-in to view streaming audio and streaming video.

It is also possible to save streaming audio or streaming video clips to your hard disc so that they can be used offline. A podcast is a digital audio recording that is made available on the Web, enabling the recording to be played or downloaded for listening at the user's convenience. A vodcast is the equivalent term used to describe a digital video recording that is made available on the Web.

The term podcast takes its name from a combination of iPod Apple's portable digital media player and broadcasting , but podcasts and vodcasts do not necessarily require the use of an iPod or similar device. Most audio and video recordings on the Web can be played using a standard media player: Many podcasts and vodcasts now appear on the websites of professional broadcasting stations, e.

You can subscribe to a series of broadcasts by using RSS feeds: If you wish to create your own podcast you first need to master the process of making and editing digital recordings: Then you have to learn how upload the recordings to the Web, and both these processes vary depending on the tools that you choose to use. There are many Web 2. Why not get your own students to try their hand at making a podcast or vodcast? It will provide them with useful practice in planning, writing and speaking.

The motivation is that they will be addressing a potentially large public audience who will listen to or view their work. If you get your students to make their own recordings, this task needs to be planned and organised in just the same way as teachers planned and organised such tasks in the old days of reel-to-reel recordings. The difference is that the new technologies have made the process more flexible and much more exciting.

Don't forget that recordings live or die according to a the quality of their content, b what you do with them. Simply making digital recordings available to language students may not be effective per se. Remember what happened when satellite TV first became available. Teachers were initially overwhelmed by the technology. What a great resource! But students, left to their own devices, did not get a lot out of watching satellite TV.

They tended to let the broadcasts just wash over their heads. The answer was to encourage students to view broadcasts in a more active way, for example by introducing generic worksheets into the satellite TV viewing room. A worksheet for news broadcasts might contain a few simple tasks to be completed by the students and filed in a personal portfolio that their teachers could review from time to time, e.

This strategy could work well for podcasts and vodcasts too. Listen to and view selected podcasts and vodcasts. How does the quality of content compare with recordings made available in more traditional ways? To what extent is making a podcast or vodcast with your students different from making a recording in more traditional ways? Many lecturers are now making their lectures available as podcasts. It has often been argued that the lecture is a very inefficient way of transmitting knowledge - although many people would argue the opposite view.

What are the pros and cons of a lecture transmitted via a podcast compared to one delivered to a live audience? As one lecturer put it: The reactions of the audience told me how to to deliver the lecture. Puzzled looks indicated that I wasn't getting the message across and, of course, students would ask questions from time to time that made me change track. It offers 'listening while doing something else' - great for music you already know, but hard to see that it lends itself to learning in an educational sense.

What it does offer is flexibility, because it's mobile, and controllability, because it's digital. In a CALL context, therefore, I can see that because of this convenience it's worth taking another look at audio learning - what could we do to help learners through a purely audio medium? In that case, the existence of podcasting should be generating ideas on how podcasts should be constructed, sequenced, organised, etc.

I can just about imagine it being possible, but have not yet come across anything at all imaginative in the way podcasts are being used. I must be missing something. Podcasting offers a lot more than audiocassettes etc because you really could half-listen for hours. So what should you be listening to, if you wanted to really learn? Is anyone addressing that question? Are podcasts as example of a "disruptive technology?

Essentially, RSS allows you to see when websites have added new content. RSS can feed you information on the latest podcasts as soon as they are published, hence the term RSS feed or news feed. Thus you can subscribe to or sign up for regular updates to a series of podcasts.

This is rather like taking out a subscription for a magazine that appears at regular intervals instead of popping into your local newsagent to buy an occasional copy of a magazine. Look for the RSS icon on a Web page. This indicates that an RSS feed is available: If you click on an RSS icon on a Web page you will be given the option of subscribing to its feeds.

Google Reader provides a summary of the sites to which you have subscribed, indicating which of them has added new content, thus saving you time if you subscribe to several different sites as then you don't have to go round each of them to check for new contributions. Google Reader includes a tutorial that explains how to set up and manage your feeds.

The web2practice video on RSS feeds. Greater opportunities for interactivity. This could be at a simple level where students click on a hyperlink and move to a new page. It can also be more complex, e. Students are much freer to develop information seeking skills and to practise reading through skimming and scanning sites.

Teachers can encourage students to read for gist or to read for detail according to the tasks set. The costs can be high. If you are working at home you should find out what your connection charges are likely to be. Students can be distracted from the task by surfing other sites - this is particularly the case with younger or less motivated learners. Pages which you may have identified for students to use may not be available, or there can be crashes and delays in the connection.

A few centuries later, with the power vacuum left by the demise of the Roman imperial administration, the Catholic Church assumed the reins of power in the city, coinciding with the first waves of the invading Germanic peoples Suevi , Vandals and Alans , and later the Visigoths. The city surrendered to the invading Moors Berbers and Arabs about AD, [47] and the cathedral of Saint Vincent was turned into a mosque.

The Castilian nobleman Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as El Cid , in command of a combined Christian and Moorish army, besieged the city beginning in After the siege ended in May , he ruled the city and its surrounding territory as his own fiefdom for five years from 15 June to July The city remained in the hands of Christian troops until , when the Almoravids retook the city and restored the Muslim religion.

The Almoravid Masdali took possession on 5 May , then the Almohads , seized control of it in Many Jews lived in Valencia during early Muslim rule, including the accomplished Jewish poet Solomon ibn Gabirol , who spent his last years in the city. When the city fell to James I of Aragon , the Jewish population of the city constituted about 7 percent of the population.

In , [49] King James I of Aragon , with an army composed of Aragonese , Catalans , Navarrese and crusaders from the Order of Calatrava , laid siege to Valencia and on 28 September obtained a surrender. The city endured serious troubles in the midth century, including the decimation of the population by the Black Death of and subsequent years of epidemics — as well as a series of wars and riots that followed.

In , the Jewish quarter was destroyed. The 15th century was a time of economic expansion, known as the Valencian Golden Age, in which culture and the arts flourished. Concurrent population growth made Valencia the most populous city in the Crown of Aragon.

In painting and sculpture, Flemish and Italian trends had an influence on Valencian artists. Valencia rose to become one of the most influential cities on the Mediterranean in the 15th and 16th centuries, but following the discovery of the Americas, the Valencians, like the Catalans, Aragonese and Majorcans all not near the Atlantic coast , were inhibited from participation in the cross-Atlantic commerce, and with this loss of trade, Valencia eventually suffered an economic crisis.

The crisis deepened during the 17th century with the expulsion in of the Jews and the Moriscos , descendants of the Muslim population that had converted to Christianity. They were concentrated in the former Kingdom of Aragon , and in the Valencia area specifically, they were roughly a third of the total population.

The decline of the city reached its nadir with the War of Spanish Succession — , marking the end of the political and legal independence of the Kingdom of Valencia. On 24 January , Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of Peterborough, 1st Earl of Monmouth , led a handful of English cavalrymen into the city after riding south from Barcelona, captured the nearby fortress at Sagunt, and bluffed the Spanish Bourbon army into withdrawal.

The English held the city for 16 months and defeated several attempts to expel them. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa on 25 April , the English army evacuated Valencia and Philip V ordered the repeal of the privileges of Valencia as punishment for the kingdom's support of Charles of Austria. The Valencian economy recovered during the 18th century with the rising manufacture of woven silk and ceramic tiles. The 18th century was the age of the Enlightenment in Europe, and its humanistic ideals influenced such men as Gregory Maians and Perez Bayer in Valencia, who maintained correspondence with the leading French and German thinkers of the time.

The 19th century began with Spain embroiled in wars with France, Portugal, and England—but the War of Independence most affected the Valencian territories and the capital city.

The repercussions of the French Revolution were still felt when Napoleon's armies invaded the Iberian Peninsula. The mutineers seized the Citadel, a Supreme Junta government took over, and on 26—28 June, Napoleon's Marshal Moncey attacked the city with a column of 9, French imperial troops in the First Battle of Valencia.

He failed to take the city in two assaults and retreated to Madrid. Marshal Suchet began a long siege of the city in October , and after intense bombardment forced it to surrender on 8 January When he returned on 24 March from exile in France, the Cortes requested that he respect the liberal Constitution of , which seriously limited royal powers.

Ferdinand refused and went to Valencia instead of Madrid. Here, on 17 April, General Elio invited the King to reclaim his absolute rights and put his troops at the King's disposition.

The king abolished the Constitution of and dissolved the two chambers of the Spanish Parliament on 10 May. Thus began six years — of absolutist rule, but the constitution was reinstated during the Trienio Liberal , a period of three years of liberal government in Spain from — City life in Valencia carried on in a revolutionary climate, with frequent clashes between liberals and republicans.

The reign of Isabella II as an adult — was a period of relative stability and growth for Valencia. During the second half of the 19th century the bourgeoisie encouraged the development of the city and its environs; land-owners were enriched by the introduction of the orange crop and the expansion of vineyards and other crops,.

This economic boom corresponded with a revival of local traditions and of the Valencian language, which had been ruthlessly suppressed from the time of Philip V. Around , the Valencian Renaissance, a movement committed to the revival of the Valencian language and traditions, began to gain ascendancy. In the early 20th century Valencia was an industrialised city. The silk industry had disappeared, but there was a large production of hides and skins, wood, metals and foodstuffs, this last with substantial exports, particularly of wine and citrus.

Small businesses predominated, but with the rapid mechanisation of industry larger companies were being formed. The best expression of this dynamic was in the regional exhibitions, including that of held next to the pedestrian avenue L'Albereda Paseo de la Alameda , which depicted the progress of agriculture and industry. World War I — greatly affected the Valencian economy, causing the collapse of its citrus exports. The Second Spanish Republic — opened the way for democratic participation and the increased politicisation of citizens, especially in response to the rise of Conservative Front power in The inevitable march to civil war and the combat in Madrid resulted in the removal of the capital of the Republic to Valencia.

On 6 November , the city became the capital of Republican Spain. The city was heavily bombarded by air and sea, and by the end of the war the city had survived bombardments, leaving 2, dead and wounded, although it is estimated that the death toll was higher. The Republican government moved to Barcelona on 31 October of that year. On 30 March , Valencia surrendered and the Nationalist troops entered the city. The postwar years were a time of hardship for Valencians. During Franco's regime speaking or teaching Valencian was prohibited; in a significant reversal it is now compulsory for every schoolchild in Valencia.

The dictatorship of Franco forbade political parties and began a harsh ideological and cultural repression countenanced [54] and sometimes even led by the Catholic Church. The economy began to recover in the early s, and the city experienced explosive population growth through immigration spurred by the jobs created with the implementation of major urban projects and infrastructure improvements. With the advent of democracy in Spain, the ancient kingdom of Valencia was established as a new autonomous entity, the Valencian Community , the Statute of Autonomy of designating Valencia as its capital.

These public works and the ongoing rehabilitation of the Old City Ciutat Vella have helped improve the city's livability and tourism is continually increasing.

It was supposedly brought to that church by Emperor Valerian in the 3rd century, after having been brought by St. Peter to Rome from Jerusalem. The Sant Calze Holy Chalice is a simple, small stone cup.

Its base was added during the medieval period and consists of fine gold, alabaster and gem stones. Valencia was selected in to host the historic America's Cup yacht race, the first European city ever to do so. The America's Cup matches took place from April to July Twenty-two days later, on 25 July , the leaders of the Alinghi syndicate, holder of the America's Cup, officially announced that Valencia would be the host city for the 33rd America's Cup, held in June The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman and Arabic times.

The Cathedral , built between the 13th and 15th centuries, is primarily of Valencian Gothic style but contains elements of Baroque and Romanesque architecture. The 15th-century Serrans and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the centre of the city. Llotja de la Seda Silk Exchange, interior. Mercat de Colon in Valencian Art Nouveau style. The Museum of Fine Arts of Valencia , is the second museum with the largest amount of paintings in Spain, [63] [64] after Prado Museum. Real Colegio Seminario del Corpus Christi. One of the few arch-bridges that links the Cathedral with neighboring buildings.

This one built in Palau de la Generalitat a tower was added in , the rest was built in the Medieval and Early-Modern periods. It is situated in the centre of the ancient Roman city where some believe the temple of Diana stood. In Gothic times, it seems to have been dedicated to the Holy Saviour; the Cid dedicated it to the Blessed Virgin; King James I of Aragon did likewise, leaving in the main chapel the image of the Blessed Virgin, which he carried with him and is reputed to be the one now preserved in the sacristy.

Michael's day in The tower is about 58 metres feet high and is topped with a belfry — In the 15th century the dome was added and the naves extended back of the choir, uniting the building to the tower and forming a main entrance. Archbishop Luis Alfonso de los Cameros began the building of the main chapel in ; the walls were decorated with marbles and bronzes in the Baroque style of that period. The other two doors lead into the transept; one, that of the Apostles in pure pointed Gothic, dates from the 14th century, the other is that of the Palau.

The additions made to the back of the cathedral detract from its height. The 18th-century restoration rounded the pointed arches, covered the Gothic columns with Corinthian pillars, and redecorated the walls. The dome has no lantern, its plain ceiling being pierced by two large side windows.

There are four chapels on either side, besides that at the end and those that open into the choir, the transept, and the sanctuary. It contains many paintings by eminent artists. A silver reredos , which was behind the altar, was carried away in the war of , and converted into coin to meet the expenses of the campaign.

There are two paintings by Francisco de Goya in the San Francesco chapel. The Tribunal de les Aigües Water Court , a court dating from Moorish times that hears and mediates in matters relating to irrigation water, sits at noon every Thursday outside the Porta dels Apostols Portal of the Apostles.

In , a hospital was founded and placed under the patronage of Santa Maria dels Innocents ; to this was attached a confraternity devoted to recovering the bodies of the unfriended dead in the city and within a radius of 5 km around it.

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