Field of Science
On this hill is the Alcazaba, one of the main sights of the city. The municipality of Badajoz contains soils derived from tertiary deposits, dating to the Paleozoic era. The climate of Badajoz has drastic changes between the summer and winter as seen in the chart below. The average annual temperature is The average high temperature in July is Average annual rainfall is millimetres The city receives an average 2, hours of sunshine a year.
In , the town of Badajoz had a population of 5, people. According to the census, Badajoz has 73, men and 77, women, representing a percentage of Although the city is the most populated of Extremadura, it has a relatively low population density It should be noted that in addition to the metropolitan centre the population includes districts, neighborhoods and towns with small populations, the most populous of which is Guadiana del Caudillo , which had 2, people as of , but gained independence on 17 February The increase shown in was reduced because of the independence of the municipalities of Valdelacalzada and Pueblonuevo del Guadiana in Badajoz was the birthplace of the statesman Manuel de Godoy , the duke of Alcudia — Many of the provincial administration buildings are located in Badajoz, as well as the government buildings of the municipal administration.
Politically, Badajoz belongs to the Spanish Congress Electoral District of Badajoz , which is the largest electoral district about of 52 districts in the Spanish Congress of Deputies in terms of geographical area and includes a significant part of the Extremadura region. The electoral district was first contested in modern times in the General Election. Historically, frequent wars ravaged Badajoz's economy and people were poor.
Agricultural land was not fertile with no industry of any major importance in its territory. Badajoz primarily is now a commercial city, ranked 25th place in economic importance in Spain according to Spain's Economic Yearbook for , published by Servicio de Estudios de La Caixa. Because of its location, the city shares a considerable transit trade with Portugal.
The service sector is dominant in the city. The main shopping street is Menacho, where most national and international chains are located. The Centro Comercial Abierto Menacho is the largest outdoor shopping centre in Extremadura which has had several hundred thousand euros invested into it, and it is visited by thousands of Portuguese a year.
An economic and cultural centre, it has a wide range of markets from fish and various food stalls to health shops,"  The Old Town area has been affected by this trade fair but is slowly recovering, with the opening of new stores. The city's industrial land on the western side of the river is concentrated almost entirely in a large industrial estate, El Nevero, located next to the A-5 one of the six radial roads in Spain with numbers AA-6 , which is continually expanding, with a diversity of companies operating there.
There are also other industrial estates in the suburbs and small businesses in neighborhoods like San Roque. In summer , the project to build the new 38 million euro headquarters of the Caja de Badajoz was made public,  which began to be built in October and is currently in use. It was the only important fort on the southern Portuguese frontier during the 17th and 18th centuries and controlled the routes of southern Portugal and Andalusia and was a staging point for invasions against Portugal.
It presently serves as the Archeological Museum of Badajoz. Its restaurants, pubs and nightlife are a major attraction for the Portuguese across the border. Palacio Municipal houses the City Hall. The remains of the original City Hall building are in ruins. The current building dates to , and the clock was added in It features a balustrade, a central balcony and columns. The Alcazaba , a Moorish citadel built in the 9th century by Ibn Marwan , was fortified by the Almohad caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf in , although there are traces of earlier work dating back to and The Alcazaba served as the primary residences for the rulers of the Taifa of Badajoz in the 11th and 12th centuries.
It has an octagonal plan with a quadrangular structure that once provided scenic views of the countryside. The name is attributed to the sharp ringing of a bell that was one installed in the tower. The building attached to it, built in the 16th century called La Galera, once served as city hall, then a prison and finally it is now the Archaeological Museum.
A well-tended garden surrounded this monument where archeological finds from the Visigothic, Roman, and other periods were found. The Vauban military fort was built in the 17th century during the war between Spain and Portugal that lasted from to as a defense measure to counter-attack forces entering the city from the northwest and southeast. It is made of stone, brick and lime concrete.
It has eight bastions built on the northern part of the fort as the Guadiana and Rivilla rivers on the south provided the defense. The structure was completed in by a local businessman for commercial intent. Various proposals for the local government to acquire the building have been made, including plans for appropriating an expansion of the Museum of Fine Arts, a regional cultural centre, and an Easter -centric museum, Easter being a major touristic draw for the city.
The Puerta de Palmas was built in The towers are fortified with battlements and they have two decorative cords at the top and bottom levels. Its entrance is east-facing, and is double-arched and is decorated with medallions of the shield of the Emperor Charles V. It was once used as a prison, but has since undergone many renovations and has been an entrance point to the city.
Clare in the city and lies in the heart of the old city. It was founded in by Ms. The monastery underwent a major transformation in the 18th century although the original structure partly remains. On the vault of the chancel stands a lookout tower with a lattice brick convent, topped with pinnacles. The church of the monastery has a single nave which was rebuilt in the late 17th century, and the presbytery is covered by a late Gothic rib vault dated to the first half of the 16th century. The Jardines de la Galera date back to the 10th century.
They are nestled between the Torre de Espantaperros and the Chemin de ronde , within the Alcazaba. Many Alhambran ruins still exist within the gardens, and have been open to the public since after the site was restored after being closed for more than thirty years.
The etymology of the gardens stems from the fact that the gardens provided a respite for prisoners sentenced to the gallows in Seville. Plant species extant in the gardens include cinnamomum camphora , dichondra repens , ceiba speciosa , and trees of the myrtle , laurel , orange , lemon , and pomegranate.
The city also has a water and leisure park, called the Lusiberia. The building is located on the site of the old Pretrial Detention and Correctional centre, which had been built in the mids on the grounds of a former 17th-century military stronghold, known as the Fort of Pardaleras.
The building houses the 16th-century palace of the dukes of Feria. The collection is organized into six major areas: The elegant building is built of stone and brick masonry, and has four towers at the corners with a terraced facade.
The interior is made up of Mudejar brick arches resting on octagonal columns. The Museo Catedralicio Cathedral Museum is situated on the cathedral grounds. It provides a historical journey through the different stages of the building's construction.
It also features artifacts from the founding of the archdiocese to the present day. It includes posters, photographs and objects from the world of bullfighting. Costumes of groups who participated over the years in the city's carnival are exhibited in the museum.
In , it joined the Extremadura network of museums. Plaza de Cervantes is considered place of importance for the history of Badajoz. Parts of the square occupy an area which belonged to St. Andrew's Church and its cemetery. It is decorated in white marble with a concentric mosaic of pointed stars dating to Plaza Alta, recently restored, was for centuries the center of the city since it exceeded the limits of the Muslim citadel; it was formerly known simply as "the square".
It currently houses the Archdiocese. Casa Puebla, built in , is one of the other designs of Pinna, who designed numerous buildings around Badajoz. It is one of the best examples of regional architecture in Andalusian style and the property has two facades, the main one featuring neo-Renaissance elements.
During the Arab period, burials were along the roads and near the eastern suburb of the Citadel, close to Cerro de la Muela and also in the area of Santiago bastion; these locations were noted during recent excavations.
Badajocenses Christians from the earliest centuries towards the end of 19th century buried their dead in or near churches. The city of Badajoz is home to four bridges, all of which span the Guadiana. The Puente de Palmas, also known as Puente Bobo, is the oldest bridge in Badajoz; the masonry was first laid in , but a sudden rise in the river's waters destroyed the structure in In , 16 of its 24 spans were destroyed by floods and were restored between and Puente de la Universidad is downstream of the old Palmas Bridge.
It was built in It has a bicycle lane and links to the Elvas Avenue leading to Portugal and many other city centres. While not a city renowned for its culture and art, many notable artists, musicians, and writers were born in the city. Like much of southern Spain, flamenco is very popular, and performances are regularly put on in Badajoz on the Plaza Alta and other venues.
Some flamenco palos linked to Badajoz are Extremaduran jaleos and Extremaduran tangos. The festival known as "Feria de San Juan" is held every year from 23 June to 1 July at this border town, which is a major attraction not only for people of Spain but also to the Portuguese who cross the border to attend the one-week festival.
This festival also includes bull fights. The university was founded on 4 November , when the Faculty of Badajoz belonging to the University of Seville was established. It underwent extensive refurbishment during the 16th to 18th centuries.
The paintings of Luis de Morales, a local artist of the Renaissance period , are exhibited in the cathedral. Built with ashlar masonry, the windows are made of stone and carved.
Its capital is the city of Burgos. Since , archaeologists have been working at numerous areas of the Archaeological Site of Atapuerca , where they have found ancient hominid and human remains, the former dating to more than one million years ago, with artefacts from the Palaeolithic and Bronze Ages of man. The other locations higher than 20, inhabitants apart from Burgos are Miranda de Ebro and Aranda de Duero , both very industrialized.
The most important rivers in the province are the Ebro and the Duero. Planted near it is a notable vineyard , Ribera de Duero.
The north and south-east of the province are mountainous. The Ebro flows to the Mediterranean Sea. In Valpuesta the oldest texts in the Spanish language has been found, dating from the tenth century.
Transportation is developed through a wide net of highways and roads. In the Bureba Pass area, archaeologists have found evidence of occupation by hominids and humans for more than one million years. Discoveries have included the earliest hominid skull in Europe. The Celtiberian region that became Burgos was inhabited by the Morgobos , Turmodigi , Berones and perhaps also the Pellendones , the last inhabitants of the northern part of the Celtiberian region.
According to the Greek historian Ptolemy , the principal cities included: In the fifth century, the Visigoths drove back the Suevi. In the eighth century, the Arabs occupied all of Castiles.