Moroccan carpet History,THE ART OF CARPETS
The Art of Sketching Some sketches or drawings for the Lobatera P aris C hurch polychrome facade restoration work, with the more important details and the minor details. Photographs by A rch. Sonia Becerra van der Linden and A rch.
Hubert van der Linden, The surface of internal t ower walls expos ed a construction massive, wi th rubble-work , quoins and stone dre ssing, a Roman masonry called also 'opus incertum ' in four stages , an d a n old winch lifted materials to the masons and bricklayers.
The Bell t ower was completed in and t he Clock t ower construction fell f our years behind schedule and the tower was finally completed in 1 The smaller rocks and smaller stones stabilize the walls. Photograph by Samir A. At the same time, t hese towers not only are a landmark in Lobatera but also house a peal of four bells and an old clock. The bell was str i ke on the hour , half an hour, and quarters or quarter-hour.
Il campanile or the Bell tower north , or belfry, has a centenarian carillon-quadrillion, four old bell bronze used in the Roman Catholic tradition, installed in , two and Clock Tower on the southern end of Lobatera Parish Church stands among scaffoldings. Moreover, to effect of loads, octagon-shape is the best or most favorable building because its elements of structure are to resist axial loading by gravity and to resist transverse loading by lateral wind or earthquake.
Eight independent supporting arches -heavy ribs- and masonry webbing mold its exterior shape and this echoes the interior eight-sided vault. The vaulted ceilings of Lobatera Church were done without wood-frame or iron-frame, allowing to observe directly these artistic ceilings from the outside.
A whole structural and aesthetic design provides continuous supportability: In this respect, it is said that Anthemius of Tralles c. An insights into the functional structure and examined the inter-relationships between ecclesiastical architecture, liturgical design and old ceremonies in Lobatera Parish Church, we encounter that the dome —built between and was designed to admit an eastern light shaft on the High altar, through one of the East facing drum windows, on a significant time of ancient Roman Catholic liturgical days solemnities, feasts, and memorials in the Latin and Eastern Rite before the Second Vatican Council changes, The arches that support this dome are angled over four compound piers, taking the thrust of the high-rise masonry along their length.
The arches and pendentives support the weight of the ribbed dome and transfer the load to piers and foundations. According to the earliest form of the celebration of the Mass -in its solemn form High Mass -, a significant time was the third hour of day, Missam de Tertia or Tertia Hora Canonical hours , during which the Holy Ghost, e. This central liturgical rite necessitated the incidence of a light shaft -in bright, orange to yellow- on the offerings resembling the descent of the Holy Spirit.
In order for this to occur, the dome orientation windows was determined by the old liturgical timekeeping method.
The third hour corresponded always to the middle of the morning 9: Thus, t he morning sunlight or radiant beam light falling towards the High altar in the manner outlined above and the smoke of burning incense, were combined to create a spiritual and sacred effect of a continuous shines brightly as a symbol of the prayer of the faithful r ising to God.
Serene on the inside Jakova', Cathedral of St. James , southwestern Croatia, begun early 15th-century. The geometry of the main floor plan is shaped like a Latin cross, with a long and high nave. The basic design or diagram of Lobatera Parish Church stars with a rectangle and one circle such as the Church of Panagia Chalkeon, Thessaloniki; an 11th-century Byzantine church in the northern Greek with a cross-in-square or crossed-dome plan, and t he Romanesque Basilica-Abbey of Saint-Sernin Toulouse, France , ca.
Dominating the skyline of Lobatera, the facade of the Parish Church was artistically illuminated Monumental, witty even, the outside is fine for architectural studies. I t looks like a hierarchically additive ordering of volumes expressive of the interior spatial order, displaying the modular additive composition of Romanesque volumetric arris or groin vault modules or bays.
The interior is divided in three long spaces: There exists an early Tachiran example in religious large structures of the use of mathematical precision: In a certain sense, these chapels are probably a didactic work of art about the revival of classical forms of an architecture and design based on proportion, perspective and mathematics into conformity with the old style of 15th-century Italian architect Filippo Brunelleschi. The nave consists of a long series of square bays or segments, and the lower vaults of the aisles are doubled up, two to each nave bay, to conform to these volumes.
This long central part —of seven modules- and lower side aisles with lunettes and quarter- round barrel vaults or kind buttress of solid structure as continuous support system for nave were covered with groin vaults supported on transverse arches, arcades with half-round arches and Roman Doric fluted columns and noble pilasters with heavy grooves.
All groin vaults have sculptured oak leaves rosette keystones. In mediaeval construction time, the oak leaves were associated with strength and endurance.
The behavior of candles light in the interior of the magnificent structure of the Lobatera Church and its Romanesque revival architecture. The lighting of the paschal candle is a traditional Easter observance in the Lobatera Parish Church, since The paschal candle is lighted from flint on the night of Holy Saturday and all other candles in the church are lit by fire from this candle. Most solemn Easter service of the Lobatera Vigil is depicted and it was observed on the night of Holy Saturday with the blessing of the new fire.
Accompanied by marching bands, Lobateran Roman Catholic brotherhoods and penitents carry a statue of Jesus carrying the cross Spanish baroque sculpture from AD , during a Great Week procession, Holy Wednesday A sectional axonometric shows three stages of the central nave from a granite floor: They admit natural light for the creation of an atmosphere supportive of the Divine Office and the celebration of the Eucharist.
The system of ritual lighting -orientation towards east and west- involved the nave, aisles, chapels and dome design, as well as the proportions of the church interior in respect to the way its various spaces ought to be viewed. So, on entering the church there is a controlled tropical light with contrast between light and shade, particularly between the nave, side aisles and chapels.
This appears to be due in part to the opacity of coloured stained glass [not many, but en ough. M ade in , in Cali, Casa Velasco Vitrales, since ] of ai sle windo ws, in contrast with rosette or Catherine window of the front facade, and half-pointed arched windows of triphorium and clerestorey such as Roman thermal windows defined by semicircular opening with internal semicircular rose windows.
Heavenly illumination or the spiritual and mysterious quality of light… The Lobatera Parish Church windows with stained glass Photograph by Engr. Spreading vivid colours and wonderful characterization over a delicate and vulnerable glass, mounted in a metal framework, the 20 aisles windows show the use of the biblical and mystical symbolism and the Early Christian Art symbols. Published continuously in Barcelona since , the conservative La Vanguardia has the widest Castilian-language readership in Catalonia.
There are other newspapers serving regional and local interests that are published in local languages. There are also several newspapers that specialize in areas such as sports and business. Marca , a sport daily, is the most widely disseminated daily newspaper in Spain. By the late s most leading newspapers also published digital versions on the Internet.
Yet, despite this large number of newspapers, overall readership in Spain is low by European standards. By the early 21st century, Spaniards read about two-thirds fewer newspapers than did the average reader in the EU , and most Spaniards got their news from nonprint sources. There also are many weekly and monthly magazines published in Spain. On the other hand, there are also a number of serious political magazines.
Television was introduced into Spain in They still broadcast today, solely in Castilian, and have been split into separate organizations: In the Catalan and Basque autonomous governments established television stations that broadcast in the regional languages; a Galician-language station began operation two years later.
At the end of the s, the number of television stations available to Spaniards increased rapidly. Moreover, in the government introduced legislation permitting the establishment of privately owned television stations. Three of these began to broadcast in , and in subsequent years several others began operations. There are now several hundred television stations serving national, regional, and local audiences.
At the same time, the availability of satellite dishes, which many Spaniards acquired, gave them access to channels broadcasting in a variety of languages, especially English, French, German, and Italian. The most popular types of programs include game shows, soap operas, sports, movies, and dramatic series. Much of the programming comes from the United States, but a number of soap operas telenovelas from South America are very popular.
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Spanish Baroque was similar to Italian Baroque but with a greater emphasis on surface decorations. In the second half of the 5th century, the Visigoths penetrated into Spain and, as early as , ruled practically the entire country. Toulouse remained their capital until , when Clovis I pushed them back beyond the Pyrenees.
The restraint of God's Spirit was removed from a people that had despised the gift of His grace. Evil was permitted to come to maturity. And all the world saw the fruit of willful rejection of the light. The war against the Bible, carried forward for so many centuries in France, culminated in the scenes of the Revolution. That terrible outbreaking was but the legitimate result of Rome's suppression of the Scriptures.
The suppression of the Scriptures during the period of papal supremacy was foretold by the prophets; and the Revelator points also to the terrible results that were to accrue especially to France from the domination of the "man of sin. Said the angel of the Lord: And I will give power unto My two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth.
And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them. And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified. And they that dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and make merry, and shall send gifts one to another; because these two prophets tormented them that dwelt on the earth.
And after three days and a half the Spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood upon their feet; and great fear fell upon them which saw them.
The periods here mentioned—"forty and two months," and "a thousand two hundred and threescore days"—are the same, alike representing the time in which the church of Christ was to suffer oppression from Rome. The years of papal supremacy began in A. At that time a French army entered Rome and made the pope a prisoner, and he died in exile. Though a new pope was soon afterward elected, the papal hierarchy has never since been able to wield the power which it before possessed.
The persecution of the church did not continue throughout the entire period of the years. God in mercy to His people cut short the time of their fiery trial.
In foretelling the "great tribulation" to befall the church, the Saviour said: Through the influence of the Reformation the persecution was brought to an end prior to Concerning the two witnesses the prophet declares further: The two witnesses represent the Scriptures of the Old and the New Testament. Both are important testimonies to the origin and perpetuity of the law of God.
Both are witnesses also to the plan of salvation. The types, sacrifices, and prophecies of the Old Testament point forward to a Saviour to come. The Gospels and Epistles of the New Testament tell of a Saviour who has come in the exact manner foretold by type and prophecy.
The papal power sought to hide from the people the word of truth, and set before them false witnesses to contradict its testimony. Yet they continued their testimony throughout the entire period of years.
In the darkest times there were faithful men who loved God's word and were jealous for His honor. To these loyal servants were given wisdom, power, and authority to declare His truth during the whole of this time.
Men cannot with impunity trample upon the word of God. The meaning of this fearful denunciation is set forth in the closing chapter of the Revelation: Such are the warnings which God has given to guard men against changing in any manner that which He has revealed or commanded.
These solemn denunciations apply to all who by their influence lead men to regard lightly the law of God. They should cause those to fear and tremble who flippantly declare it a matter of little consequence whether we obey God's law or not. All who exalt their own opinions above divine revelation, all who would change the plain meaning of Scripture to suit their own convenience, or for the sake of conforming to the world, are taking upon themselves a fearful responsibility.
The written word, the law of God, will measure the character of every man and condemn all whom this unerring test shall declare wanting. As they were approaching the termination of their work in obscurity, war was to be made upon them by the power represented as "the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit. But here is brought to view a new manifestation of satanic power.
It had been Rome's policy, under a profession of reverence for the Bible, to keep it locked up in an unknown tongue and hidden away from the people. Under her rule the witnesses prophesied "clothed in sackcloth. Of all nations presented in Bible history, Egypt most boldly denied the existence of the living God and resisted His commands. No monarch ever ventured upon more open and highhanded rebellion against the authority of Heaven than did the king of Egypt.
When the message was brought him by Moses, in the name of the Lord, Pharaoh proudly answered: I know not Jehovah, and moreover I will not let Israel go. This is atheism, and the nation represented by Egypt would give voice to a similar denial of the claims of the living God and would manifest a like spirit of unbelief and defiance.
The corruption of Sodom in breaking the law of God was especially manifested in licentiousness. And this sin was also to be a pre-eminent characteristic of the nation that should fulfill the specifications of this scripture. According to the words of the prophet, then, a little before the year some power of satanic origin and character would rise to make war upon the Bible.
And in the land where the testimony of God's two witnesses should thus be silenced, there would be manifest the atheism of the Pharaoh and the licentiousness of Sodom. This prophecy has received a most exact and striking fulfillment in the history of France. During the Revolution, in , "the world for the first time heard an assembly of men, born and educated in civilization, and assuming the right to govern one of the finest of the European nations, uplift their united voice to deny the most solemn truth which man's soul receives, and renounce unanimously the belief and worship of a Deity.
Plenty of blasphemers, plenty of infidels, there have been, and still continue to be, in England, Germany, Spain, and elsewhere; but France stands apart in the world's history as the single state which, by the decree of her Legislative Assembly, pronounced that there was no God, and of which the entire population of the capital, and a vast majority elsewhere, women as well as men, danced and sang with joy in accepting the announcement.
France presented also the characteristics which especially distinguished Sodom. During the Revolution there was manifest a state of moral debasement and corruption similar to that which brought destruction upon the cities of the plain.
And the historian presents together the atheism and the licentiousness of France, as given in the prophecy: If fiends had set themselves to work to discover a mode of most effectually destroying whatever is venerable, graceful, or permanent in domestic life, and of obtaining at the same time an assurance that the mischief which it was their object to create should be perpetuated from one generation to another, they could not have invented a more effectual plan that the degradation of marriage.
Sophie Arnoult, an actress famous for the witty things she said, described the republican marriage as 'the sacrament of adultery. In no land had the spirit of enmity against Christ been more strikingly displayed. In no country had the truth encountered more bitter and cruel opposition. In the persecution which France had visited upon the confessors of the gospel, she had crucified Christ in the person of His disciples.
Century after century the blood of the saints had been shed. While the Waldenses laid down their lives upon the mountains of Piedmont "for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ," similar witness to the truth had been borne by their brethren, the Albigenses of France.
In the days of the Reformation its disciples had been put to death with horrible tortures. King and nobles, highborn women and delicate maidens, the pride and chivalry of the nation, had feasted their eyes upon the agonies of the martyrs of Jesus. The brave Huguenots, battling for those rights which the human heart holds most sacred, had poured out their blood on many a hard-fought field. The Protestants were counted as outlaws, a price was set upon their heads, and they were hunted down like wild beasts.
The "Church in the Desert," the few descendants of the ancient Christians that still lingered in France in the eighteenth century, hiding away in the mountains of the south, still cherished the faith of their fathers.
As they ventured to meet by night on mountainside or lonely moor, they were chased by dragoons and dragged away to lifelong slavery in the galleys. The purest, the most refined, and the most intelligent of the French were chained, in horrible torture, amidst robbers and assassins. Others, more mercifully dealt with, were shot down in cold blood, as, unarmed and helpless, they fell upon their knees in prayer.
Hundreds of aged men, defenseless women, and innocent children were left dead upon the earth at their place of meeting. In traversing the mountainside or the forest, where they had been accustomed to assemble, it was not unusual to find "at every four paces, dead bodies dotting the sward, and corpses hanging suspended from the trees.
Science was then cultivated, letters flourished, the divines of the court and of the capital were learned and eloquent men, and greatly affected the graces of meekness and charity. But blackest in the black catalogue of crime, most horrible among the fiendish deeds of all the dreadful centuries, was the St. The world still recalls with shuddering horror the scenes of that most cowardly and cruel onslaught. The king of France, urged on by Romish priests and prelates, lent his sanction to the dreadful work.
A bell, tolling at dead of night, was a signal for the slaughter. Protestants by thousands, sleeping quietly in their homes, trusting to the plighted honor of their king, were dragged forth without a warning and murdered in cold blood. As Christ was the invisible leader of His people from Egyptian bondage, so was Satan the unseen leader of his subjects in this horrible work of multiplying martyrs. For seven days the massacre was continued in Paris, the first three with inconceivable fury.
And it was not confined to the city itself, but by special order of the king was extended to all the provinces and towns where Protestants were found. Neither age nor sex was respected. Neither the innocent babe nor the man of gray hairs was spared. Noble and peasant, old and young, mother and child, were cut down together.
Throughout France the butchery continued for two months. Seventy thousand of the very flower of the nation perished. The cardinal of Lorraine rewarded the messenger with a thousand crowns; the cannon of St.
Angelo thundered forth a joyous salute; and bells rang out from every steeple; bonfires turned night into day; and Gregory XIII, attended by the cardinals and other ecclesiastical dignitaries, went in long procession to the church of St.
Louis, where the cardinal of Lorraine chanted a Te Deum. A medal was struck to commemorate the massacre, and in the Vatican may still be seen three frescoes of Vasari, describing the attack upon the admiral, the king in council plotting the massacre, and the massacre itself.
Gregory sent Charles the Golden Rose; and four months after the massacre,. The same master spirit that urged on the St. Bartholomew Massacre led also in the scenes of the Revolution. Jesus Christ was declared to be an impostor, and the rallying cry of the French infidels was, "Crush the Wretch," meaning Christ.
Heaven-daring blasphemy and abominable wickedness went hand in hand, and the basest of men, the most abandoned monsters of cruelty and vice, were most highly exalted. In all this, supreme homage was paid to Satan; while Christ, in His characteristics of truth, purity, and unselfish love, was crucified.
The worship of the Deity was abolished by the National Assembly. Bibles were collected and publicly burned with every possible manifestation of scorn. The law of God was trampled underfoot. The institutions of the Bible were abolished. The weekly rest day was set aside, and in its stead every tenth day was devoted to reveling and blasphemy.
Baptism and the Communion were prohibited. And announcements posted conspicuously over the burial places declared death to be an eternal sleep.
The fear of God was said to be so far from the beginning of wisdom that it was the beginning of folly. All religious worship was prohibited, except that of liberty and the country.
The "constitutional bishop of Paris was brought forward to play the principal part in the most impudent and scandalous farce ever acted in the face of a national representation. He was brought forward in full procession, to declare to the Convention that the religion which he had taught so many years was, in every respect, a piece of priestcraft, which had no foundation either in history or sacred truth.
He disowned, in solemn and explicit terms, the existence of the Deity to whose worship he had been consecrated, and devoted himself in future to the homage of liberty, equality, virtue, and morality. He then laid on the table his episcopal decorations, and received a fraternal embrace from the president of the Convention.
Several apostate priests followed the example of this prelate. The word of truth lay dead in her streets, and those who hated the restrictions and requirements of God's law were jubilant. Men publicly defied the King of heaven. Like the sinners of old, they cried: With blasphemous boldness almost beyond belief, one of the priests of the new order said: I bid You defiance! You remain silent; You dare not launch Your thunders. Who after this will believe in Your existence? What an echo is this of the Pharaoh's demand: And the Lord declares concerning the perverters of the truth: After France had renounced the worship of the living God, "the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity," it was only a little time till she descended to degrading idolatry, by the worship of the Goddess of Reason, in the person of a profligate woman.
And this in the representative assembly of the nation, and by its highest civil and legislative authorities! The doors of the Convention were thrown open to a band of musicians, preceded by whom, the members of the municipal body entered in solemn procession, singing a hymn in praise of liberty, and escorting, as the object of their future worship, a veiled female, whom they termed the Goddess of Reason.
Being brought within the bar, she was unveiled with great form, and placed on the right of the president, when she was generally recognized as a dancing girl of the opera. To this person, as the fittest representative of that reason whom they worshiped, the National Convention of France rendered public homage. Said the orator who introduced the worship of Reason: Fanaticism has given way to reason.
Its bleared eyes could not endure the brilliancy of the light. This day an immense concourse has assembled beneath those gothic vaults, which, for the first time, re-echoed the truth.
There the French have celebrated the only true worship,—that of Liberty, that of Reason. There we have formed wishes for the prosperity of the arms of the Republic. There we have abandoned inanimate idols for Reason, for that animated image, the masterpiece of nature.
Thiers, History of the French Revolution, vol. When the goddess was brought into the Convention, the orator took her by the hand, and turning to the assembly said: Henceforth acknowledge no divinity but Reason. I offer you its noblest and purest image; if you must have idols, sacrifice only to such as this. Fall before the august Senate of Freedom, oh! There she was elevated on the high altar, and received the adoration of all present. This was followed, not long afterward, by the public burning of the Bible.
On one occasion "the Popular Society of the Museum" entered the hall of the municipality, exclaiming, "Vive la Raison! It was popery that had begun the work which atheism was completing. The policy of Rome had wrought out those conditions, social, political, and religious, that were hurrying France on to ruin. Writers, in referring to the horrors of the Revolution, say that these excesses are to be charged upon the throne and the church. Popery had poisoned the minds of kings against the Reformation, as an enemy to the crown, an element of discord that would be fatal to the peace and harmony of the nation.
It was the genius of Rome that by this means inspired the direst cruelty and the most galling oppression which proceeded from the throne. The spirit of liberty went with the Bible. Wherever the gospel was received, the minds of the people were awakened. They began to cast off the shackles that had held them bondslaves of ignorance, vice, and superstition. They began to think and act as men. Monarchs saw it and trembled for their despotism. Rome was not slow to inflame their jealous fears.
Said the pope to the regent of France in A few years later a papal nuncio warned the king: